(1) Article 261 provides that any industrial or commercial use of an invention, utility model, industrial design and model, mark or other distinctive sign of business, trade name, geographical indication or layout design integrated circuit, which is the subject of a protection title granted under this law and made by any person other than the owner of the title and without his/her consent, shall constitute an act of forgery.
(2) Any infringement of copyrights or related rights protected under this law, committed willfully or by gross negligence, by any third person for profit-making purposes and without owner’s right consent shall constitute an act of forgery.
(3) Any third person, who knowingly sells, offers on sale, is making rent, detains or introduces on the territory of the Republic of Rwanda, the alleged infringing goods for commercial purposes, shall be considered as committing the same offense.
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