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Policy Document

European Commission report on Fake News and Online Disinformation

Final report of the High Level Expert Group (HLEG) on Fake News and Online Disinformation
In January 2018, the European Commission created High Level Group (HLEG) of experts "to advise on policy initiatives to counter fake news and disinformation spread online". The multidisciplinary group consisted of 39 members and was chaired by Prof. Dr. Madeleine de Cock Buning. The report presented by the HLEG affirms that disinformation is a phenomenon that goes beyond the term "fake news", which was used misleadingly by different actors "to dismiss coverage that is simply found disagreeable." As defined in the report, disinformation "includes all forms of false, inaccurate, or misleading information designed, presented and promoted to intentionally cause public harm or for profit." The HLEG recommends a multi-dimensional approach to the problem of disinformation, consisting of five pillars: enhance transparency of...
Regulation

Provisions on the Governance of the Online Information Content Ecosystem

Order of the Cyberspace Administration of China (No. 5)
The Provisions on Ecological Governance of Network Information Content, as deliberated and adopted at the executive meeting of the Cyberspace Administration of China, are hereby issued and shall come into force on March 1, 2020. Director: Zhuang Rongwen December 15, 2019 Chapter I General Provisions Article 1 These Provisions are hereby developed in accordance with the State Security Law of the People's Republic of China, the Cybersecurity Law of the People's Republic of China, the Measures for the Administration of Internet Information Services and other laws and administrative regulations for the purposes of creating a good network ecology, protecting the legitimate rights and interests of citizens, legal persons and other organizations, and safeguarding national security and public interests. Article 2 These...
Regulation

Provisions for the Administration of Internet News Information Service 2017

Revision of the Provisions for the Administration of Internet News Information Services 2005
Chapter I: General Provisions Article 1: In order to strengthen Internet information content management and stimulate the healthy and orderly development of Internet news information services, on the basis of the “ Cybersecurity Law of the People’s Republic of China ”, the “ Administrative Measures of Internet Information Services ”, and the “ Notice of the State Council on Charging the Cyberspace Administration of China with the Content Management of Information on the Internet ”, these Regulations are formulated. Article 2: These Regulations apply to the provision of Internet news information services within the territory of the People’s Republic of China News information as mentioned in these Regulations includes reporting and comments on politics, economic, military matters, foreign affairs and other such social...
Legislation

The Network Enforcement Act

Netzwerkdurchsetzungsgesetz
Overview As of recently providers of social networks in Germany must comply with the so-called “ Network Enforcement Act ” formally known by the name “Act to Improve Enforcement of the Law in Social Networks” respectively “ Netzwerkdurchsetzungsgesetz ”. The new law is meant to fight unlawful content on the internet, including hate speech, by addressing social networks and increasing their responsibilities. It requires social networks with more than 2 million registered users in Germany to set up a procedure ensuring that “manifestly unlawful” content is removed within 24 hours of a complaint and all other unlawful content is generally removed within seven days of a complaint. Breaches of this duty are considered a “regulatory offense” and may be sanctioned with regulatory fines of up to €50 million ($60 million)....
Legislation

Protection from Online Falsehoods and Manipulation Act comes into force

Five months after it was passed in Singapore Parliament, the Protection from Online Falsehoods and Manipulation Act ( POFMA ) came into effect on Wednesday, October 2. Also came online was the POFMA office , the administrative arm of this new law, which is affiliated with Infocomm Media Development Authority ( IMDA ). Aiming to protect society from misinformation that harms public interests, falsehoods are defined as "statements of fact that are false or misleading" which are to be determined by the POFMA ministers, whom would then decide whether to issue editorial corrections or takedown orders coupled with fines and/or jail time. Civil rights groups, academics, and intermediaries have all voiced concerns as to POFMA's vague and broad languages and the inherent uncertainties of its future applications. Facing dissents...
Legislation
Regulation

Protection from Online Falsehoods and Manipulation Act (POFMA)

Bill No. 10/2019
Date of Commencement: 2 October 2019 An Act to prevent the electronic communication in Singapore of false statements of fact, to suppress support for and counteract the effects of such communication, to safeguard against the use of online accounts for such communication and for information manipulation, to enable measures to be taken to enhance transparency of online political advertisements, and for related matters. Be it enacted by the President with the advice and consent of the Parliament of Singapore, as follows: PART 1 PRELIMINARY Short title and commencement 1. This Act is the Protection from Online Falsehoods and Manipulation Act 2019 and comes into operation on a date that the Minister appoints by notification in the Gazette . General interpretation 2. —(1) In this Act, unless the context otherwise requires —...